The La Caridad complex includes an open-pit mine, concentrator, smelter, copper refinery, precious metals refinery, rod plant, SXEW plant, lime plant and two sulfuric acid plants.
La Caridad mine and mill are located about 23 kilometers southeast of the town of Nacozari de Garcia in northeastern Sonora. Nacozari is about 264 kilometers northeast of the Sonora state capital of Hermosillo and 121 kilometers south of the U.S.-Mexico border. Nacozari is connected by paved highway with Hermosillo and Agua Prieta and by rail with the international port of Guaymas, and the Mexican and United States rail systems. An airstrip with a reported runway length of 2,500 meters is located 36 kilometers north of Nacozari, less than one kilometer away from the La Caridad copper smelter and refinery. The smelter and the sulfuric acid plants, as well as the refineries and rod plant, are located approximately 24 kilometers from the mine. Access is by paved highway and by railroad.
The concentrator began operations in 1979, the molybdenum plant was added in 1982, the smelter in 1986, the first sulfuric acid plant in 1988, the SXEW plant in 1995, the second sulfuric acid plant in 1997, the copper refinery in 1997, the rod plant in 1998, the precious metals refinery in 1999, and the dust and effluents plant in 2012.
The table below sets forth 2013, 2012 and 2011 production information for La Caridad:
Mine annual operating days
Total ore mined
Leach material mined
Total material milled
Copper in concentrate
Molybdenum concentrate average grade
Estimated leach recovery
SXEW cathode production
Major mine equipment includes twenty-three 240 ton-capacity trucks, four 360 ton-capacity trucks and six 43 cubic-yad-capacity shovels. Loading and auxiliary equipment includes six drillers, five front loaders, three motorgraders and nineteen tractors.
The La Caridad deposit is a typical porphyry copper and molybdenum deposit as seen also in the southwestern basin of United States. The La Caridad mine uses a conventional open-pit mining method. The ore body is at the top of a mountain, which gives La Caridad the advantage of a relative low waste-stripping ratio, natural pit drainage and relative short haul for both ore and waste. The mining method involves drilling, blasting, loading and haulage of ore mill and waste to the primary crushers and the leach materials and waste to dumps, respectively.
La Caridad deposit is located in northeastern Sonora, Mexico. The deposit is situated near the crest of the Sierra Juriquipa, about 23 kilometers southeast of the town of Nacozari, Sonora, Mexico. The Sierra Juriquipa rises to elevations of around 2,000 meters in the vicinity of La Caridad and is one of the many north-trending mountain ranges in Sonora that form a southern extension of the basin and range province.
The La Caridad porphyry copper-molybdenum deposit occurs exclusively in felsic to intermediate intrusive igneous rocks and associated breccias. Host rocks include diorite and granodiorite. These rocks are intruded by a quartz monzonite porphyry stock and by numerous breccia masses, which contain fragments of all the older rock types.
Supergene enrichment, consisting of completes to partial chalcosite (Cu2S) replacement of chalcopyrite (CuFeS2). The zone of supergene enrichment occurs as a flat and tabular blanket with an average diameter of 1,700 meters and thickness generally between 0 and 90 meters.
Economic ore is found as disseminated sulfurs within the central part of the deposit. Sulfide-filled breccias cavities are most abundant in the intrusive breccia. This breccia-cavity mineralization occurs as sulfide aggregates which have crystallized in the spaces separating breccia clasts. Near the margins of the deposit, mineralization occurs almost exclusively in veinlets. Ore minerals include chalcopyrite (CuFeS2), chalcosite (Cu2S) and molybdenite (MoS2).
The La Caridad ore body has been mined for over 30 years. The extent of the model area is approximately 6,000 meters by 4,000 meters with elevation ranging from 750 to 1,800 meters.
Sixteen drilling campaigns have been conducted on the property since 1968. These campaigns drilled a total of 3,317 drill holes: 1,154 were diamond drill holes and 2,163 were reverse circulation. We have also drilled some hammer and percussion drill holes. A total of 634,080 meters have been drilled through December 2011.
In 2008, La Caridad finished a large exploration program of 50,000 meters. The target was to reach to the 900 level in order to reduce the drilling space and to define the copper and molybdenum mineralization continuity and also carry out metallurgical testing for the flotation and leaching processes. There was no exploration program between 2009 and 2011. In 2012, we will be developing an exploration program of 10,000 meters with the objective of further defining the copper and molybdenum mineralization continuity.
La Caridad uses state-of-the-art computer monitoring systems at the concentrator, the crushing plant and the flotation circuit in order to coordinate inflows and optimize operations. The concentrator has a current capacity of 90,000 tons of ore per day.
Ore extracted from the mine with a copper grade over 0.30% is sent to the concentrator and is processed into copper concentrates and molybdenum concentrates. The copper concentrates are sent to the smelter and the molybdenum concentrate is exported. The molybdenum recovery plant has a capacity of 2,000 tons per day of copper-molybdenum concentrates. The lime plant has a capacity of 340 tons of finished product per day.
La Caridad concentrator plant consists of two primary crushers, six secondary crushers, twelve tertiary crushers, twelve ball mills, one master milling control system, 140 primary flotation cells, four re-grinding mills, ninety-six cleaning flotation cells, twelve thickeners and eight drum filters.
Approximately 693.7 million tons of leaching ore with an average grade of approximately 0.246% copper have been extracted from the La Caridad open-pit mine and deposited in leaching dumps from May 1995 to December 31, 2013. All copper ore with a grade lower than the mill cut-off grade 0.30%, but higher than 0.15% copper, is delivered to the leaching dumps. In 1995, we completed the construction of a SXEW facility at La Caridad that has allowed processing of this ore and certain leach ore reserves that were not mined and has resulted in a reduction in our copper production costs. The SXEW facility has an annual capacity of 21,900 tons of copper cathodes.
The La Caridad SX-EW plant has nine irrigation systems for the dumps, two PLS dams and a container of heads that permits the combination of the solutions of both dams and which feeds the SXEW plant with a more homogenous concentration. The plant has three trains of solvent extraction with a nominal capacity of 2,400 cubic meters per hour and 94 electrowinning cells distributed in one single electrolytic bay. The plant has a daily production capacity of 62 tons of copper cathodes with 99.999% purity.
Our La Caridad complex includes a smelter, an electrolytic copper refinery, a precious metal refinery and a copper rod plant. The distance between this complex and the La Caridad mine is approximately 24 kilometers.
The table below sets forth 2013, 2012 and 2011 production information for the La Caridad processing facilities:
Copper concentrates from Buenavista, Santa Barbara, Charcas and La Caridad are transported by rail and truck, respectively, to the La Caridad smelter where they are processed and cast into copper anodes of 99.2% purity. Sulfur dioxide off gases collected from the flash furnace, the El Teniente converter and conventional converters are processed into sulfuric acid, at two sulfuric acid plants. Approximately 2% to 3% of this acid is used by our SXEW plants and the balance is sold to third parties.
Almost all of the anodes produced in the smelter are sent to the La Caridad copper refinery. The actual installed capacity of the smelter is 1,000,000 tons per year, a capacity that is sufficient to treat all the concentrates of La Caridad and Buenavista, and starting in 2010, the concentrates from the IMMSA mines, as we closed the San Luis Potosi smelter. The smelter includes one flash type concentrates drier, one steam drier, one flash furnace, one El Teniente modified converter furnace, two electric slag-cleaning furnaces, three Pierce-Smith converters, three raffinate furnaces and two casting wheels. The anode production capacity is 300,000 tons per year.
La Caridad includes an electrolytic copper refinery that uses permanent cathode technology. The installed capacity of the refinery is 300,000 tons per year. The refinery consists of an anode plant with a preparation area, an electrolytic plant with an electrolytic cell house with 1,115 cells and 32 liberator cells, two cathode stripping machines, an anode washing machine, a slime treatment plant and a number of ancillary installations. The refinery is producing grade A copper cathode of 99.99% purity. Anodic slimes are recovered from the refining process and sent to the slimes treatment plant where additional copper is extracted. The slimes are then filtered, packed and shipped to the La Caridad precious metals refinery to produce silver and gold.
The operations of the precious metal refinery begin with the reception of slime from silver concentrates, which are dried in a steam dryer. After this, the dried slime is smelted and a gold and silver alloy is obtained, which is known as Dore. The precious metal refinery plant has a hydrometallurgical stage and a pyrometallurgical stage, besides a steam dryer, Dore casting system, Kaldo furnace, 20 electrolytic cells in the silver refinery, one induction furnace for fine silver, one silver ingot casting system and two reactors for obtaining fine gold. The process ends with the refining of the gold and silver alloy. We also recover commercial selenium from the gas produced by the Kaldo furnace process.
Copper Road Plant
A rod plant at the La Caridad complex was completed in 1998 and reached its full annual operating capacity of 150,000 tons in 1999. The plant is producing eight millimeter copper rods with a purity of 99.99%. The rod plant includes one vertical furnace, one retention furnace, one molding machine, one laminating machine, one coiling machine and one coil compacter.
Other facilities include a lime plant with a capacity of 132,000 tons per year; two sulfuric acid plants, one with a capacity of 2,625 tons per day and the second with a capacity of 2,135 tons per day; three oxygen plants, each with a production capacity of 275 tons per day; and two power turbo generators, one of them uses residual heat from the flash furnace, the first with a 11.5 megawatt capacity and the second with a 25 megawatt capacity. One of the turbo generators uses residual heat from the flash furnace.
In 2012, we started operating a dust and effluent plant with a treatment capacity of 3,100 tons per year which will produce 720 tons of copper by-products and 11,000 tons of lead per year. This plant is designed to reduce dust emissions from La Caridad metallurgical complex.
The Buenavista mining unit operates an open-pit copper mine, a concentrator and two SX-EW plants. It is located 100 air-kilometers northwest of La Caridad and 40 kilometers south of the Arizona U.S. Mexican border. It lies on the outskirts of the city of Cananea.
Buenavista is connected by paved highways to the border city of Agua Prieta to the ortheast, to the town of Nacozari in the southeast, and to the town of Imuris to the west. Buenavista is also connected by railway to Agua Prieta and Nogales. A municipal airport is located approximately 20 kilometers to the northeast of Buenavista.
Except for very brief periods, Buenavista was on strike from July 2007 through June 2010. Restoration of mine and plants started in the third quarter of 2010 and was completed in 2011. SX-EW production was restored to full capacity by the fourth quarter of 2010 and concentrator production reached full capacity in the second quarter of 2011. In 2013, mine operations were affected by flooding problems caused by unusual rains in the area, as a consequence we lost approximately 22,900 tons of copper production. The mine restored full operations by the end of the third quarter of 2013.
We have started a major capital investment program at Buenavista, which includes a new SX-EW plant with a planned annual capacity of 120,000 tons of copper, a concentrator expansion with an increase in production capacity of 188,000 tons per year and two molybdenum plants with a combined annual capacity of 4,600 tons. This investment program is underway and we expect to complete it in two phases. We expect to complete the first phase in 2014 and estimate an increase in annual production of 120,000 tons and to complete the second phase in 2015 with an expected further increase in annual copper production of 188,000 tons. With these investments, we expect the total production capacity at Buenavista will reach 488,000 tons of copper by 2015.
The concentrator has a nominal milling capacity of 76,700 tons per day. The SX-EW facility has a cathode production capacity of 54,750 tons per year. The Buenavista ore body is considered one of the world’s largest porphyry copper deposits. Buenavista is the oldest continuously operated copper mine in North America, with operations dating back to 1899. High grade ore deposits in the district were mined exclusively using underground methods. The Anaconda Company acquired the property in 1917. In the early 1940s Anaconda started developing the first open-pit in Buenavista. In 1990, through a public auction procedure, Minera Mexico acquired 100% of the Buenavista mining assets for $475 million. Buenavista is currently applying conventional open-pit mining methods to extract copper ore for further processing in the concentrator. Two leach ore crushers and the corresponding belt conveying systems are used to convey the leachable material to the heaps. Likewise, run-off mine leachable ore is hauled by trucks to the leach dumps.
The following table shows 2013, 2012 and 2011 production information for Buenavista:
Key: kt = thousand tonsx = Stripping ratio obtained dividing waste plus leachable material by ore mined.The copper grade is total grade.(*) The 2013 increase in leach material mined was due to the additional material mined for the new SX-EW III plant that is expected to start operations in the second quarter of 2014.
Major Buenavista mine equipment includes:• Fifty six 400-ton-capacity trucks,• thirteen 320-ton-capacity trucks,• twenty 240-ton-capacity trucks,• three 52,000 gallon-capacity tanker trucks,• four 40,000- gallon-capacity tanker trucks,• four 40-cubic-yard-capacity shovels,• one 56-cubic-yard-capacity shovel,• two 70-cubic-yard-capacity shovels, and• seven 74-cubic-yard-capacity shovels.
Mine auxiliary equipment including:• Eleven drillers,• three front loaders,• five motor graders, and• twenty-nine tractors.
The Buenavista mining district lies on the southern cordilleran orogen, which extends from southern Mexico to northwestern United States. It also falls within the Basin and Range metallogenic province. Geological and structural features in the district are representative of large, disseminated type, porphyry copper deposits. A calcareous sedimentary sequence of lower Paleozoic age, lithologically correlated with a similar section in southeastern Arizona, uncomformably overlies Precambrian granite basement. The entire section was covered by volcanic rocks of Mesozoic age and later intruded by deep seated granodiorite batholith of Tertiary age, with further quartz monzonite porphyry differentiates of Laramide age.
Mineralization in the district is extensive covering a surface area of approximately 30 square kilometers. An early pegmatitic stage associated with bornite-chalcopyrite-molybdenite assemblage was followed by a widespread flooding of hydrothermal solutions with quartz- pyrite-chalcopyrite. A pervasive quartz-sericite alteration is evident throughout the district’s igneous rock fabric.
An extensive and economically important zone of supergene enrichment, with disseminated and stockworks of chalcocite (Cu2S), developed below the iron oxide capping. This zone coincides with the topography and has an average thickness of 300 meters. A mixed zone of secondary and primary sulfides underlay the chalcocite blanket. The hypogene mineralization, principally chalcopyrite, (CuFeS2), extensively underlies the ore body. Molybdenite occurs throughout the deposit and the content tends to increase with depth.
The Buenavista copper porphyry is considered world-class and unique. The deepest exploration results in the core of the deposit have confirmed significant increase in copper grades. Similar porphyry copper deposits usually contain lower grades at depth. The district is also unique for the occurrence of high-grade breccia pipes, occurring in clusters following the trend of the district.
Current dimensions of the mineralized ore body are 5x3 kilometers, and projects to more than 1 kilometer at depth. Considering the geological and economic potential of the Buenavista porphyry copper deposit, it is expected that the operation can support a sizeable increase in copper production capacity.
In-fill core drilling was conducted at the Buenavista zinc-copper-silver deposit, including directional drilling for geotechnical purposes. A deep drilling campaign was initiated in 2011 to explore the extent of the deposit at depth, drilling a total of 3,860 meters in 2012. For short-term mine planning, 6,652 meters were drilled to confirm copper grade and metallurgical recoveries. Also, in 2011, a condemnation drilling program was initiated to define areas for future infrastructure, as well as areas where leach and waste dumps will be deposited. A total of 28,369 meters of core drilling were completed in 2011. A geohydrology program was initiated in 2011 to explore the possibility of groundwater sources within the mine limits, and a total of 29,750 meters of diamond drilling were drilled in 2012. In addition, 3,797 meters were drilled for water monitoring wells. We did not have a drilling campaign in 2013. For 2014, 20,000 meters of drilling are planned to define reserves and to confirm copper and molybdenum grades.
Buenavista uses state-of-the-art computer monitoring systems at the concentrator, the crushing plant and the flotation circuit in order to coordinate inflows and optimize operations. Material with a copper grade over 0.38% is loaded onto trucks and sent to the milling circuit, where giant rotating crushers reduce the size of the ore to approximately one-half of an inch. The ore is then sent to the ball and bar mills, which grind it to the consistency of fine powder. The finely ground powder is agitated in a water and reagents solution and is then transported to flotation cells. Air is pumped into the cells producing a froth, which carries the copper mineral to the surface but not the waste rock, or tailings. Recovered copper, with the consistency of froth, is filtered and dried to produce copper concentrates with an average copper content of approximately 27%. Concentrates are then shipped by rail to the smelter at La Caridad.
The Buenavista concentrator plant, with a milling capacity of 76,700 tons per day, consists of:
• Two primary crushers, • four secondary crushers,• ten tertiary crushers,• ten primary mills,• one expert control system,• five mills for re-grinding,• 103 primary flotation cells,• ten column cells,• seventy scavenger flotation cells,• seven thickeners, and• three ceramic filters.
In addition, the facility has:
• Forty eight wells and two pumping stations for fresh water supply,• one tailings dam, and• one reclaimed water pumping station.
As part of the expansion program for this unit, in 2013 we completed the construction of the first molybdenum plant with an annual production capacity of 2,000 tons of molybdenum contained in concentrate. The plant was designed to process 1,500 tons of coppermolybdenum concentrates per day with a recovery of 85% and 50% of molybdenum content. The molybdenum plant consists of thickeners, homogenizer tanks, flotation cells, column cells and a holo-flite dryer.
The Buenavista unit operates a leaching facility and two SX-EW plants. All copper ore with a grade lower than the mill cut-off grade of 0.38%, but higher than 0.25%, is delivered to the leach dumps. A cycle of leaching and resting occurs for approximately five years in the run-of-mine dumps and three years for the crushed leach material.
The Buenavista unit currently maintains 18.1 million cubic meters of pregnant leach solution in inventory with a concentration of approximately 1.82 grams of copper per liter.
Major equipment at the SX-EW I and II plants includes: two crushing systems (No.1 and No.2). Crushing system No. 1 has a capacity of 32,000 tons per day and includes:
• One apron feeder,• One conveyor belt feeder,• Eight conveyor belt systems, and• One distributing bar.
Crushing system No. 2 has a capacity of 48,000 tons per day and includes:• One crusher,• One conveyor belt feeder,• Four conveyor belts, and• One distributing bar.
There are three irrigation systems for the dumps and eleven dams for the pregnant leach solution (PLS). Plant I has four solvent extraction tanks with a nominal capacity of 16,000 liters per minute of PLS and 52 electrowinning cells and has a daily production
capacity of 30 tons of copper cathodes with 99.999% purity. Plant II has five trains of solvent extraction with a nominal capacity of 55,000 liters per minute of PLS and 216 cells distributed in two bays and has a daily production capacity of 120 tons of copper cathodes with 99.9% purity. In 2014, we expect to increase the Buenavista unit’s production of copper cathodes with a new SX-EW plant, (SX-EW III) with an annual capacity of 120,000 tons. The plant would produce copper cathodes of ASTM grade 1 or LME grade A.
Taxco has been on strike since July 2007. Please see Note 13 “Commitments and Contingencies” to our consolidated financial statements.
The Taxco mining complex is located on the outskirts of the city of Taxco in the northern part of the state of Guerrero, Mexico, approximately 71 kilometers from the city of Cuernavaca, Morelos, where access through the highway to the complex is possible.
The complex includes several underground mines (San Antonio, Guerrero and emedios) and a flotation plant and produces lead and zinc concentrates, with some amounts of gold and silver. The mining district in which the Taxco mines are located was discovered in 1519. Mining activities in the 20th century commenced in 1918. The Taxco district lies in the northern part of the Balsas-Mexcala basin adjacent to the Paleozoic Taxco-Zitacuaro Massif.
We employ shrinkage, cut-and-fill and the room and pillar mining methods at the Taxco mines. The flotation plant has a capacity of 2,000 tons of ore per day. The lead concentrate is treated at a third party refinery in Mexico. The zinc concentrate is either treated at the San Luis Potosi zinc refinery or exported.
The following table summarizes the estimated production losses at our Taxco mine due to the strike:
The major mine equipment at the Taxco complex includes:
• Four Jumbo drilling tools,• ten scoop trams for mucking and loading,• five trucks for internal ore haulage,• three locomotives for internal ore haulage, and• three hoists.
The concentrator plant has a milling capacity of 2,000 tons of ore per day and includes the following equipment
• Two primary crushers,• one secondary crusher,• two tertiary crushers,• three mills, and• two flotation circuits.
The Taxco district is stratigraphically formed of rocks from Jurassic to recent periods, which are described below, with emphasis on the mineralization control characteristics. The Taxco schist is composed of a series of schists and fylites, most likely from a volcanicsedimentary sequence of tufa and limonites. They represent a sequence of metamorphological arch and its age has been defined as Jurassic Medium. The Morelos formation from the Upper Cretaceous age (Apian-Turonian) lies on a discordant form over Taxco schist and its contact is several times marked by a clay zone (mylonites) and breccia, which implies a shifting of this unit over the schist (packs). The Mezcala formation is constituted by a sequence of shale and sandstone with some inter-stratified layers of limestone. Its base is calcarean. Its top tends to be rich in clay with thin limestone layers. The Balsas group is constituted by conglomerates and is sandy on its base, rests in discordance form on an erosioned surface from the Mexcala formation. The Tilzapotla Ryolite is the newest rock, which emerged in the district before the alluvial deposit. It is formed of flux, breccia, tuffaceous, ignimbrites and vitrophyrre of ryolite composition.
There are four types of ore deposits found in Taxco district. In order of importance they are as follows: fissure-filling veins, replacement veins, blanket-like replacement bodies (so called “mantos”), stock works and brecciate chimneys. The three first ones are intimately related and they were formed in the same era, although in different stages.
The veins reach up to two kilometers in length with a variable potency of thirty centimeters up to eight meters, which is the case of copper veins at the mines of Guerrero, Hueyapa and Palo Amarillo at the San Antonio mine; the Remedios mine has among other veins, El Muerto and El Cristo one kilometer long and five meters in average potency.
Economic ore is found in the deposit in veins. Ore mineral include argentiferous galena (PbS), sphalerite (ZnS), pyrargyrite (Ag3SbS3), and other sulfosalts, and replacement “mantos.” The most mineralized zones are in the vicinity of the veins with the limestone. The mineralization is more intensive in the base of the limestone and consists of sphalerite (ZnS), galena (PbS), pyrite (FeS) and magnetite (FeOFe2O3).
There was no mine exploration drilling in three years ending December 31, 2013 at the Taxco mine.
There was no production at the Taxco mine in the three years ending December 31, 2013.
The Santa Barbara mining complex is located approximately 26 kilometers southwest of the city of Hidalgo del Parral in southern Chihuahua, Mexico. The area can be reached via paved road from Hidalgo del Parral, a city on a federal highway. Chihuahua, the state capital is located 250 kilometers north of the Santa Barbara complex. Additionally, El Paso on the Texas border is located 600 kilometers north of Santa Barbara. Santa Barbara includes three main underground mines (San Diego, Segovedad and Tecolotes) and a flotation plant and produces lead, copper and zinc concentrates, with significant amounts of silver. Gold bearing veins were discovered in the Santa Barbara district as early as 1536. Mining activities in the 20th century began in 1913.
The mining operations at Santa Barbara are more diverse and complex than any of the other mines in our Mexican operations, with veins that aggregate approximately 21 kilometers in length. Each of the three underground mines has several shafts and crushers. Due to the variable characteristics of the ore bodies, four types of mining methods are used: shrinkage stoping, long-hole drilled open stoping, cut-and-fill stoping and horizontal bench stoping. The ore, once crushed, is processed in the flotation plant to produce concentrates. The flotation plant has a capacity of 5,700 tons of ore per day. The lead concentrate produced is treated at a third party refinery in Mexico. The copper concentrates are treated at our La Caridad smelter and the zinc concentrates are either treated at the San Luis Potosi zinc refinery or exported.
The major mine equipment at Santa Barbara includes twenty-one jumbo drilling tools, one Simba drilling tool, forty-three scoop trams, fourteen trucks and eleven locomotives for internal ore haulage, four locomotives for surface haulage, seven trucks for external haulage and six hoists. For treating the ore, there are six primary jaw crushers, one secondary crusher and two tertiary crushers, three mills and three flotation circuits. The concentrator plant has a milling capacity of 5,800 tons of ore per day.
The table below sets forth 2013, 2012 and 2011 production information for our Santa Barbara mines:
The major mine equipment at Santa Barbara includes:
• Twenty-four jumbo drilling tools,• one Simba drilling tool,• forty-six scoop trams,• fourteen trucks for internal ore haulage,• eleven locomotives for internal ore haulage,• four locomotives for surface haulage,• seven trucks for external haulage, and• six hoists.
The concentrator plant has a milling capacity of 5,800 tons of ore per day and includes the following equipment:
• Six primary jaw crushers,• one secondary crusher,• two tertiary crushers,• three mills, and• three flotation circuits.
The majority of production from the district comes from quartz veins within faults and fractures. The north to northwestern trending veins is up to several kilometers long, dips steeply to the west and is 0.5 to 30 meters wide. Ore shoots up to several hundred meters in length, extends to at least 900 meters below the surface and is separated from other ore by 0.5 to 1 meter of barren quartz vein. Metal zoning occurs in some veins, with zinc and lead content generally decreasing with depth and copper increasing with depth. Three main systems of veins exist inside the district, represented by the veins Coyote, Segovedad Novedad and Coyote Seca Palmar. In addition to the main veins, there are many smaller sub-parallels to branching ore bearing veins. Economic ore minerals include sphalerite (ZnS), marmatite (ZnFeS), galena (PbS), chalcopyrite (CuFeS2) and tetrahedrite (CuFe12 Sb4S13). Gangue minerals include quartz (SiO2), pyrite (FeS2), magnetite (Fe2O4), pirrotite (Fe2+S), arsenopyrite (FeAsS) and fluorite (CaF2).
The Santa Barbara district has mineralization to indicate that it will continue to be a significant producer of lead, copper and zinc for decades. The full potential of the district has not yet been defined, but the area seems to justify an increase in exploration.
In 2013 we drilled 52,513 meters from the surface and 15,060 meters from underground stations, which increased reserves by 2,076,100 tons. For 2014, 46,000 meters of diamond drilling are planned to identify additional reserves.
San Martin has been on strike since July 2007. Please see Note 14 “Commitments and Contingencies” to our consolidated financial statements.
The San Martin mining complex is located in the municipality of Sombrerete in the western part of the state of Zacatecas, Mexico, approximately 101 kilometers southeast of the city of Durango and nine kilometers east of the Durango State boundary. Access to the property is via a federal highway between the cities of Durango and Zacatecas. A paved six kilometer road connects the mine and town of San Martin with the highway. The city of Sombrerete is about 16 kilometers east of the property. The complex includes an underground mine and a flotation plant and produces lead, copper and zinc concentrates, with significant amounts of silver. The mining district in which the San Martin mine is located was discovered in 1555. Mining operations in the 20th century began in 1949. San Martin lies in the Mesa Central between the Sierra Madre Occidental and the Sierra Madre Oriental.
The horizontal cut-and-fill mining method is used at the San Martin mine. The broken ore is hauled to the underground crusher station. The ore is then brought to the surface and fed to the flotation plant to produce concentrates. The flotation plant has a total capacity of 4,400 tons of ore per day. The lead concentrate is treated at a third party refinery in Mexico. Copper concentrate is treated at the La Caridad smelter and zinc concentrate is treated at the San Luis Potosi zinc refinery or zinc concentrate is sold to third parties.
The major mine equipment at San Martin includes eight jumbo drilling tools, thirteen scoop trams, nine trucks and three hoists. The concentrator plant has a mill capacity of 4,400 tons of ore per day and includes the following equipment: two primary jaw crushers, two secondary crushers, one tertiary crusher, two mills, and three flotation circuits.
The following table summarizes the estimated production losses at our San Martin mine due to the strike:
Copper in concentrates
San Martin lies in the Central Mesa between two major geologic provinces, Sierra Madre Occidental and Sierra Madre Oriental. The main sedimentary rock-formation in the San Martin district is the Upper Cretaceous Age Cuesta del Cura limestone. The formation is an interlayered sequence of shallow marine limestone and black chert, and it is overlain by Indura formation which outcrops at the foot of the topographic heights of the Cuesta del Cura formation. It consists mainly of alternating shales and fine-grained clayed limestones in ten to thirty centimeter thick layers.
The district’s most important mineral deposits are replacement veins and bodies generated in the skarn by Cerro de la Gloria granodiorite intrusion. An extensive zone of skarn west of the intrusive hosts, the San Marcial, Ibarra and Gallo-Gallina main ore veins, which appear at the surface for distances of up to 1,000 meters, with thicknesses of 40 centimeters to four meters, paralleling the intrusive contact. In the central part of the deposit there is a horizontal zoning with respect to the contact of the intrusive with high values of silver and copper. In the top of the deposit there is mostly lead and zinc. In the northeast/east over concentric structures to the intrusive there is an increment of lead, zinc and silver in the skarn. Economic ore is found as replacement ore bodies between the main veins as massive and disseminated sulfides with widths from eight meters up to 200 meters. These bodies consist mostly of chalcopyrite (CuFeS2), sphalerite (ZnS), galena (PbS), bornite (Cu5FeS4), tetrahedrite (CuFe12Sb4S13), native silver (Ag), pyrrite (FeS), arsenopyrite (FeAsS) and stibnite (Sb2S3). Molybdenum and tungsten are found in little portions in the skarn near the contact associated with the calcite.
There was no mine exploration drilling in the three years ending December 31, 2013 because the San Martin mine was on strike.
The Charcas mining complex is located 111 kilometers north of the city of San Luis Potosi in the State of San Luis Potosi, Mexico.
Charcas is connected to the state capital by a paved highway of 130 kilometers. 14 kilometers from the southeast of the Charcas complex is the “Los Charcos” railroad station which connects with the Mexico-Laredo railway. Also, a paved road connects Charcas to the city of Matehuala via a federal highway and begins at the northeast of the Charcas townsite. The complex includes three underground mines (San Bartolo, Rey-Reina and La Aurora) and one flotation plant that produces zinc, lead and copper concentrates, with significant amounts of silver. The Charcas mining district was discovered in 1573 and operations in the 20th century began in 1911. The Charcas mine is characterized by low operating costs and good quality ores and is situated near the zinc refinery. The Charcas mine is now Mexico’s largest producer of zinc.
The Charcas complex’s equipment includes twenty jumbo drilling tools, twenty scoop trams for mucking and loading, fourteen trucks and two locomotives for internal ore haulage and three hoists. In addition, the mill has one primary crusher, one secondary crusher, two tertiary crushers, four mills and three flotation circuits.
The table below sets forth 2013, 2012 and 2011 production information for our Charcas mine:
The Charcas complex’s equipment includes:
• Twenty one jumbo drilling tools,• Twenty scoop trams for mucking and loading,• Thirteen trucks,• Two locomotives for internal ore haulage, and• Three hoists.
In addition, the mill has:
• One primary crusher,• One secondary crusher,• Two tertiary crushers,• Four mills, and• Three flotation circuits.
The Charcas mining district occupies the east-central part of the Mexican Central Mesa and is part of the Sierra Madre metallogenic province. Geological history starts in the Superior Triasic, where sandy clay sediments were deposited argilloarenaceous. Due to emersion in the beginning of the Jurassic Superior, the sediments suffered intense erosion, settling on continental sediments. This sequence was affected by tectonic effort, which folded and failed on this rock package. Later the positioning of intrusive rocks originated fractures, which gave way to positioning of mineral deposits. The site’s paragenesis suggests two stages of mineralization. First minerals are rich in silver, lead and zinc, with abundant calcite and small quantities of quartz chalcopyrite. Second, there is a link of copper and silver, where the characteristic minerals are chalcopyrite, lead ore with silver content, pyrite and scarce sphalerite. Economic ore is found as replacement sulfurs in carbonates host rock. The ore mineralogy is comprised predominantly of chalcopyrite (CuFeS2), sphalerite (ZnS), galena (PbS) and silver minerals as diaphorite (Pb2Ag3Sb3S8).
In 2013, 29,376 meters of surface diamond drilling were executed and 19,917 meters from underground stations were drilled, which increased our reserves by 978,211 tons. For 2014, we plan a surface program of 30,000 meters to identify additional reserves.
The Charcas mine uses the hydraulic cut-and-fill method and the room-and-pillar mining method with descending benches. The broken ore is hauled to the underground crusher station. The crushed ore is then hoisted to the surface for processing in the flotation plant to produce lead, zinc and copper concentrates. The capacity of the flotation plant is 4,100 tons of ore per day. The lead concentrate produced at Charcas is treated at a third party refinery in Mexico. The zinc concentrates are treated at our San Luis Potosi zinc refinery and the copper concentrates are treated at our La Caridad smelter.
The mining district of Santa Eulalia is located in the central part of the state of Chihuahua, Mexico, approximately 26 kilometers east of the city of Chihuahua. This district covers approximately 48 square kilometers and is divided into three fields: east field, central field and west field. The west field and the east field, in which the principal mines of the complex are found, are separated by six kilometers. The Buena Tierra mine is located in the west field and the San Antonio mine is located in the east field. The mining district was discovered in 1590, although exploitation did not formally begin until 1870.
The district of Santa Eulalia is connected to the city of Chihuahua by a paved road (highway no. 45), at a distance of ten kilometers there is a paved detour to Aquiles Serdan and Francisco Portillo (also known as Santo Domingo) where the Company’s offices and the Buena Tierra mine are located. Access to the Buena Tierra mine and San Antonio mine is via an 11 kilometer unpaved road.
In May 2010, the Santa Eulalia mine suspended operations due to a flooding in the area brought on by the failure of a dike caused by excess water pressure. In 2011, the rehabilitation work was interrupted by a second flooding which required us to extend the pumping work. The pumping work was completed in April 2013 allowing us to restore production.
The flotation plant, at which lead and zinc concentrates are produced, has a capacity of 1,500 tons of ore per day. The lead concentrate is treated at a third party refinery, and the zinc concentrate is treated at our San Luis Potosi refinery.
Major mine equipment at the Santa Eulalia mine includes:
• Five Jumbo drilling tools,• Eleven scoop trams for mucking and loading,• Three trucks, and• Three hoists.
The concentrator plant has a milling capacity of 1,450 tons of ore per day and includes the following equipment:
• Two underground primary crushers,• One secondary crusher,• One tertiary crusher,• Two screen,• One mill, and• Two flotation circuits.
The table below sets forth 2013, 2012 and 2011 production information for our Santa Eulalia mine:
Santa Eulalia is the largest of a number of similar districts that lie along the intersection of the Laramide aged Mexican Thrust Belt and the Tertiary volcanic plateau of the Sierra Madre Occidental. Deposits throughout the belt occur in a thick Jurassic-Cretaceous carbonate succession that overlies Paleozoic or older crust.
The main sedimentary rock in the Santa Eulalia district is the Lower Cretaceous Limestone. These are irregularly covered by volcanic sedimentary conglomerates that are overlaid by volcanic rocks of the tertiary and alluvial material of the Quaternary Age. In the Santa Eulalia mining district a thickness of 500 meters of sedimentary rocks is known to exist which consists of the following formations: 1) Formation Lagrima (limestone fossils); 2) Formation Glen Rose (limestone blue and at its base a black limestone appears); and 3) Formation Cuchillo (limestone with shale). Dikes and sills of riolite composition and sills of diabase also exist.
In the district there are several systems of fractures and faults associated with the emplacement of felsitic and maphic intrusives. The most important controller of the ore bodies are the north-south fractures.
The mineralization corresponds in its majority to ore skarns — silicoaluminates of calcium, iron and manganese with variable quantities of lead, zinc, copper and iron sulfides, located in the planes of crossings in the interstices of the silicates. Economic ore is found as replacement in the Limestone Glen Rose in the contact with dikes and sills and replacements in diabase sills. The mineralogy is comprised predominantly of sphalerite (ZnS), galena (PbS) and small quantities of pyrargyrite (Ag3SbS3).
In 2013 we drilled 17,440 meters from the surface and 3,666 meters from underground stations, which increased our reserves by 373,140 tons. For 2014, an additional diamond drilling program of 20,000 meters is planned to increase reserves.
Our San Luis Potosi electrolytic zinc refinery is located in the city of San Luis Potosi, in the state of San Luis Potosi, Mexico. The San Luis Potosi copper smelter is adjacent to the refinery. The city of San Luis Potosi is connected to our refinery and smelter by a major highway.
Our San Luis copper smelter was closed in 2010, and copper concentrates previously smelted at this plant are now sent to La Caridad for smelting. We have initiated a program for plant demolition and soil remediation with a revised budget of $62.4 million, of which we have spent $35.7 million at December 31, 2013. Plant demolition and construction of a confinement area at the south of the property were completed in 2012 and we expect to complete soil remediation and the construction of a second confinement by the end of 2014. We will deposit metallurgical and other waste material resulting from plant demolition in the confinement areas. We expect that once the site is remediated, we will decide if we will sell the property or promote an urban development to generate a net gain on the disposal of the property.
The San Luis Potosi electrolytic zinc refinery was built in 1982. It was designed to produce 105,000 tons of refined zinc per year by treating up to 200,000 tons of zinc concentrate from our own mines, principally Charcas, which is located 113 kilometers from the refinery. The refinery produces special high grade zinc (99.995% zinc), high grade zinc (over 99.9% zinc) and zinc-based alloys with aluminum, lead, copper or magnesium in varying quantities and sizes depending on market demand. Refined silver and gold production is obtained from tolling services provided by a third party mining company.
The electrolytic zinc refinery’s major equipment includes:
• One roaster with 85 square meters of roasting area,• one steam recovery boiler, and• one acid plant.
There is a calcine processing area with five leaching stages: neutral, hot acid, intermediate acid, acid, purified fourth and jarosite, as well as two stages for solution purifying. Additionally, the equipment includes:
• One cell house with two electrowinning circuits to finally obtain metallic zinc,• One alloy and molding area with two induction furnaces and four molding systems, two of them with chains to produce 25 kilogram ingots, • Two casting wheels to manufacture one ton jumbo pieces.
The table below sets forth 2013, 2012 and 2011 production information for our San Luis Potosi zinc refinery:
Our Toquepala operations consist of an open-pit copper mine and a concentrator. We also refine copper at the SXEW facility through a leaching process. Toquepala is located in southern Peru, 30 kilometers from Cuajone and 870 kilometers from Lima. Access is by plane from Lima to the city of Tacna (1:20 hours) and then by the Pan-American highway to Camiara (1:20 hours) and by road to Toquepala (1 hour). The concentrator has a milling capacity of 60,000 tons per day. The SXEW facility has a production capacity of 56,000 tons per year of LME grade A copper cathodes. Overburden removal commenced in 1957 and ore production commenced in 1960. Our Toquepala operations utilize a conventional open-pit mining method to collect copper ore for further processing in our concentrator.
The table below sets forth 2013, 2012 and 2011 production information for our Toquepala operations:
We continuously improve and renovate our equipment. Major mine equipment at Toquepala includes:
Twenty-eight 290-ton capacity trucks, thirty-six 218-ton capacity trucks, eight 363-ton capacity trucks, one 60-cubic yard capacity shovel, three 56 cubic-yard capacity shovels, three 73-cubic yard capacity shovels, nine electric rotary drills, two Down the Hole (DTH) drills for pre-split, and three front-end loaders with capacities of 28, 23 and 33 cubic-yards.
The Toquepala porphyry copper deposit is located on the western slopes of Cordillera Occidental, in the southern-most Andes Mountains of Peru. The deposit is part of a mineral district that contains two additional known deposits, Cuajone and Quellaveco.
The Toquepala deposit is in the southern region of Peru, located on the western slope of the Andes mountain range, approximately 120 kilometers from the border with Chile. This region extends into Chile and is home to many of the world’s most significant known copper deposits. The deposit is in a territory with intrusive and eruptive activities of rhyolitic and andesitic rocks which are 70 million years old (Cretaceous-Tertiary) and which created a series of volcanic lava. The lava is composed of rhiolites, andesites and volcanic agglomerates with a western dip and at an altitude of 1,500 meters. These series are known as the Toquepala Group. Subsequently, different intrusive activities occurred which broke and smelted the rocks of the Toquepala Group. These intrusive activities resulted in diorites, granodiorites and dikes of porphyric dacite. Toquepala has a simple mineralogy with regular copper grade distribution. Economic ore is found as disseminated sulfurs throughout the deposit as veinlets, replenishing empty places or as small aggregates. Ore minerals include chalcopyrite (CuFeS2), chalcosine (Cu2S) and molybdenite (MoS2). A secondary enrichment zone is also found with thicknesses between 0 and 150 meters.
Exploration activities during the drill campaign in 2013 are as follows:
Our Toquepala concentrator operations use state-of-the-art computer monitoring systems in order to coordinate inflows and optimize operations. Material with a copper grade over 0.40% is loaded onto rail cars and sent to the crushing circuit, where rotating crushers reduce the size of the rocks by approximately 85%, to less than one-half of an inch. The ore is then sent to the rod and ball mills, which grind it in a mix with water to the consistency of fine powder. The finely ground powder mixed with water is then transported to flotation cells. Air is pumped into the cells producing a froth, which carries the copper mineral to the surface but not the waste rock, or tailings. The bulk concentrate with sufficient molybdenum content is processed to recover molybdenum by inverse flotation. This final copper concentrate with a content of approximately 26.5% of copper is filtered in order to reduce moisture to 8.5% or less. Concentrates are then shipped by rail to the smelter at Ilo.
Tailings are sent to thickeners where water is recovered. The remaining tailings are sent to the Quebrada Honda dam, our principal tailings storage facility.
Major concentrator plant equipment at Toquepala includes one primary crusher, three secondary crushers, six tertiary crushers, eight rod mills, twenty-four ball mills, one distributed control system (DCS), one expert grinding system, forty-two collective flotation cells, fifteen column cells, seventy-two agitair 1.13 cubic meter cells, two larox pressure filters, five middling thickeners, two conventional tailings thickeners, three high-rate tailings thickeners, one tripper car, one track tractor, and one recycled water pipe line.
The expected useful life of the principal equipment is over 20 years due to our equipment maintenance programs.
TheSX-EW facility at Toquepala produces grade A LME electrowon copper cathodes of 99.999% purity from solutions obtained by leaching low-grade ore stored at the Toquepala and Cuajone mines. The leach plant commenced operations in 1995 with a design capacity of 35,629 tons per year of copper cathodes. In 1999, the capacity was expanded to 56,000 tons per year.
Copper oxides from Cuajone with a copper grade higher than 0.208%, with an acid solubility index higher than 43% and a cyanide solubility index higher than 25% are leached. In Toquepala, the leach material cutoff grade is 0.132% and therefore material with a total copper grade between 0.132% and 0.40% are leached.
Major equipment at the Cuajone crusher plant includeso ne primary jaw crusher, and one secondary cone crusher with a capacity of 390 tons per hour.
In addition, the Toquepala plant equipment includes:
• One agglomeration mill, one front end loader, one 445E Dresser truck of 120-ton capacity, and two 830E Komatsu trucks of 240-ton capacity for hauling to the leach dumps.
Copper in solution produced at Cuajone is sent to Toquepala through an eight-inch pipe laid alongside the Cuajone-Toquepala railroad track.
Major equipment at the Toquepala plant includes five pregnant solution (PLS) ponds, each with its own pumping system to send the solution to the SX-EW plant and three lines of SX, each with a nominal capacity of 1,068 cubic meters per hour of pregnant solution and 162 electrowinning cells.
Plant and equipment are supported by a maintenance plan and a quality management system to assure good physical condition and high availability. The SXEW plant management quality system (including leaching operations) has been audited periodically since 2002 by an external audit company, and found to be in compliance with the requirements of the ISO 9001-2008 standard. In 2012, we obtained the certification OHSAS 18001 of our occupational health and safety system and the ISO14001-2004 for our environmental standards at the SX-EW plant.
Our Cuajone operations consist of an open-pit copper mine and a concentrator located in southern Peru, 30 kilometers from the city of Moquegua and 840 kilometers from Lima. Access to the Cuajone property is by plane from Lima to Tacna (1:40 hours) and then by highway to Moquegua and Cuajone (3:30 hours). The concentrator has a milling capacity of 87,000 tons per day. Overburden removal commenced in 1970 and ore production commenced in 1976. Our Cuajone operations utilize a conventional open-pit mining method to collect copper ore for further processing at the concentrator.
The table below sets forth 2013, 2012 and 2011 production information for our Cuajone operations:
We continuously improve and renovate our equipment. Major Cuajone mine equipment includes: Fifteen 290-ton capacity trucks, Thirteen 218-ton capacity trucks, Nine 231-ton capacity trucks, Thirteen 360-ton capacity trucks, Three 56-cubic yard capacity shovels, One 73-cubic yard shovel, One 60-cubic yard shovel, One 42-cubic yard shovel, One 33-cubic yard capacity front loader, One 50-cubic yard capacity front loader, Six electric drills, and Three diesel drills for pre-splitting.
Auxiliary equipment includes: Eight wheel bulldozers, Eleven Caterpillar bulldozers, One 988 CAT front loaders, Three 966 CAT front loaders, One 992 CAT front loader, Five motorgraders, and Four 785 CAT tanks.
The Cuajone porphyry copper deposit is located on the western slopes of Cordillera Occidental, in the southern-most Andes Mountains of Peru. The deposit is part of a mineral district that contains two additional known deposits, Toquepala and Quellaveco.
The copper mineralization at Cuajone is typical of porphyry copper deposits.
The Cuajone deposit is located approximately 28 kilometers from the Toquepala deposit and is part of the Toquepala Group dated 60 to 100 million years (Upper Cretaceous to Lower Tertiary). The Cuajone lithology includes volcanic rocks from Cretaceous to Quaternary. There are 32 rock types including, pre-mineral rocks, basaltic andesite, porphyritic rhyolite, Toquepala dolerite and intrusive rocks, including diorite, porphyritic latite, breccias and dikes. In addition, the following post-mineral rocks are present, the Huaylillas formation which appears in the south-southeast side of the deposit and has been formed by conglomerates, tuffs, traquites and agglomerates. These formations date 17 to 23 million years and are found in the Toquepala Group as discordance. The Chuntacala formation which dates 9 to 14 million years and is formed by conglomerates, flows, tuffs and agglomerates placed gradually in some cases and in discordance in others. Also Quaternary deposits are found in the rivers, creeks and hills. The mineralogy is simple with regular grade distribution and vertically funnel-shaped. Ore minerals include chalcopyrite (CuFeS2), chalcosine (Cu2S) and molybdenite (MoS2) with occasional galena, tetraedrite and enargite as non economical ore.
Our Cuajone operations use state-of-the-art computer monitoring systems at the concentrator, the crushing plant and the flotation circuit in order to coordinate inflows and optimize operations. Material with a copper grade over 0.35% is loaded onto rail cars and sent to the milling circuit, where giant rotating crushers reduce the size of the rocks to approximately one-half of an inch. The ore is then sent to the ball mills, which grind it to the consistency of fine powder. The finely ground powder is agitated in a water and reagents solution and is then transported to flotation cells. Air is pumped into the cells to produce foam for floating the copper and molybdenum minerals, but separating waste material called tailings. This copper-molybdenum bulk concentrate is then treated by inverse flotation where molybdenum is floated and copper is depressed. The copper concentrate is shipped by rail to the smelter at Ilo and the molybdenum concentrate is packaged for shipment to customers. Sulfides under 0.35% copper are considered waste.
Tailings are sent to thickeners where water is recovered. The remaining tailings are sent to the Quebrada Honda dam, our principal tailings storage facility..
Major Cuajone concentrator plant equipment includes:
• One primary crusher,• Three secondary crushers,• Seven tertiary crushers,• One high pressure grinding roller,• Eleven primary ball mills,• Four ball mills for re-grinding rougher concentrate,• One vertical mill for re-grinding rougher concentrate,• Thirty 100-cubic feet cells for rougher flotation,• Four 160-cubic feet cells for rougher flotation,• Five 60-cubic feet cells for cleaner scavenger,• Six 1,350-cubic feet cells for cleaner scavenger,• Fourteen 300-cubic feet cells for cleaner scavenger,• Eight column cells,• One Larox filter press,• One FLS Smith filter press,• Two thickeners for copper-molybdenum and copper concentrates,• Three tailings thickeners,• One high-rate tailings thickener, and• Six pumps for recycling reclaimed water.
A major mill expansion was completed in 1999 and the eleventh primary mill was put in operation in January 2008. In December 2013, the high pressure roller crusher was put in operation. We believe the plant’s equipment is in good physical condition and suitable for our operations.
Our Ilo smelter and refinery complex is located in the southern part of Peru, 17 kilometers north of the city of Ilo, 121 kilometers from Toquepala, 147 kilometers from Cuajone, and 1,240 kilometers from the city of Lima. Access is by plane from Lima to Tacna (1:20 hours) and then by highway to the city of Ilo (two hours). Additionally, we maintain a port facility in Ilo, from which we ship our product and receive supplies. Product shipped and supplies received are moved between Toquepala, Cuajone and Ilo on our industrial railroad.
Our Ilo smelter produces copper anodes for the refinery we operate as part of the same facility. Copper produced by the smelter exceeds the refinery’s capacity and the excess is sold to other refineries around the world. In 2007 we completed a major modernization of the smelter. The nominal installed capacity of the smelter is 1,200,000 tons of concentrate per year.
Copper concentrates from Toquepala and Cuajone are transported by railroad to the smelter, where they are smelted using an ISASMELT furnace, converters and anode furnaces to produce copper anodes with 99.7% copper. At the smelter, the concentrates are mixed with flux and other material and sent to the ISASMELT furnace producing a mixture of copper matte and slag which is tapped through a taphole to either of two rotary holding furnaces, where these smelted phases will be separated. Copper matte contains approximately 63% copper. Copper matte is then sent to the four Pierce Smith converters, where the material is oxidized in two steps:
(1) the iron sulfides in the matte are oxidized with oxygen enriched air and silica is added producing slag that is sent to the slag cleaning furnaces, and (2) the copper contained in the matte sulfides is then oxidized to produce blister copper, containing approximately 99.3% copper. The blister copper is refined in two anode furnaces by oxidation to remove sulfur with compressed air injected into the bath. Finally, the oxygen content of the molten copper is adjusted by reduction with injection of liquefied petroleum gas with steam into the bath. Anodes, containing approximately 99.7% copper are cast in two casting wheels. The smelter also can produce blister copper bars, especially when an anode furnace is in general repair.
Major equipment at the Ilo smelter includes:
• One Isasmelt furnace,• Two rotary holding furnaces,• Four Pierce-Smith converters,• Two slag cleaning furnaces,• Two anodes furnaces,• One casting twin-wheel,• One blister holding furnace,• One casting blister wheel,• One waste heat boiler,• One superheated steam, and• Three electrostatic precipitators.
The table below sets forth 2013, 2012 and 2011 production and sales information for our Ilo smelter plant:
The off gases from the smelter are treated to recover over 92% of the incoming sulfur received in the concentrates producing 98.5% sulfuric acid. The gas stream from the smelter with 11.34% SO is split between two plants: The No. 1 acid plant (single absorption/single contact) and the No. 2 plant (double absorption/double contact). Approximately, 16% of the acid produced is used at our facilities with the balance sold to third parties. We anticipate that our internal usage will be over 80% when the Tia Maria project begins operation.The smelter also has two oxygen plants. Plant No. 1, with 272 tons per day of production capacity and Plant No.2, with 1,045 tons per day of capacity.
In addition, the smelter includes:
• one seawater intake system,• two desalinization plants to provide water for the process,• one electric substation, and• one centralized control using advanced computer technology.
In 2010, the Ilo smelter marine trestle started operation. This facility allows us to offload directly to offshore ships the sulfuric acid produced, avoiding hauling cargo through the city of Ilo. The 500 meter long marine trestle is the last part of the Ilo smelter modernization project. Currently all overseas shipments of sulfuric acid are being made using the marine trestle.
The Ilo refinery consists of an electrolytic plant, a precious metal plant and a number of ancillary installations. The refinery is producing grade A copper cathode of 99.998% purity. The nominal capacity is 280,000 tons per year. Anodic slimes are recovered from the refining process and then sent to the precious metals facility to produce refined silver, refined gold and commercial grade selenium.
Anodes are suspended in tanks containing an aqueous solution of sulfuric acid and copper sulfate. A low voltage but high amperage electrical current is passed through the anodes, chemical solution and cathodes, in order to dissolve copper which is deposited on initially very thin starting sheets increasing its thickness to produce high grade copper cathodes. During this process, silver, gold and other metals, including palladium, platinum and selenium, along with other impurities, settle on the bottom of the tank in the form of anodic slime. This anodic slime is processed in a precious metal plant where silver, gold and selenium are recovered.
Major equipment at the refinery includes:
• one electrolytic plant, with 926 commercial cells,• fifty-two starting sheet cells,• sixteen primary liberator cells,• twenty-four secondary liberator cells,• one anodic slime treatment circuit (includes leaching and centrifugation), and• one electrolytic bleeding-off system by railroad to Toquepala’s leaching plants.
Main equipment at the precious metals plant includes:• one Wenmec selenium reactor and system to produce commercial grade selenium powder,• one tilting Copella furnace,• twenty-six silver electrorefining cells including an induction furnace for shots and silver ingots production, and • one hydrometallurgical system for gold recovery.
The refinery also has these facilities:
(1) Production control: Provides sampling and sampling preparation for samples coming from the operating units, as well as SXEW, smelter and external services.(2) Laboratory: Provides sample analysis services throughout the Company, including the analysis of final products like copper cathodes, electrowon cathodes, copper concentrates and oil analysis.(3) Maintenance: Responsible for maintenance of all equipment involved in the process.(4) Auxiliary facilities: Includes one desalinization plant to produce 1,000 cubic meters per day fresh water and a Gonella boiler to produce saturated steam used in the refinery and two KMH boilers used as back up.
Other facilities in Ilo are a coquina plant with a production capacity of 200,000 tons per year of seashells and a lime plant with a capacity of 80,000 tons per year. We also operate an industrial railroad to haul production and supplies between Toquepala, Cuajone and Ilo.
The industrial railroad’s main equipment includes fifteen locomotives of different types including 4000HP EMD’s SD70, 3000HP EMD’s GP40-3, 2250HP GE U23B and others. The rolling stock has approximately 496 cars of different types and capacities, including ore concentrate cars, gondolas, flat cars, dump cars, boxcars, tank cars and others. The track runs in a single 214 kilometer standard gauge line and supports a 30-ton axle load. The total length of the track system is around 257 kilometers including main yards and sidings.The infrastructure includes 27 kilometers of track under tunnels and one concrete bridge. The industrial railroad includes a car repair shop which is responsible for maintenance and repair of the car fleet. Annual tonnage transported is approximately 5.1 million tons.
The table below sets forth 2013, 2012 and 2011 production and sales information for our Ilo refinery and precious metals plants:
The Nueva Rosita coal and coke complex began operations in 1924 and is located in the state of Coahuila, Mexico on the outskirts of the city of Nueva Rosita near the Texas border. It includes a) an underground coal mine, which has been closed as a result of an accident in 2006; b) an open-pit mine with a yearly capacity of approximately 350,000 tons of coal; c) a coal washing plant completed in 1998 with a capacity of 900,000 tons per year that produces clean coal of a higher quality; and d) a re-engineered and modernized 21 oven coke facility capable of producing 100,000 tons of coke per year (metallurgical, nut and fine) of which, 95,000 tons are metallurgical coke. There is also a by-product plant to clean the coke gas oven in which tar, ammonium sulfate and light crude oil are recovered. There are also two boilers, which produce 80,000 pounds of steam that is used in the by-products plant. The reengineering and modernization of 21 ovens was completed in April 2006. We believe the plant’s equipment is in good physical condition and suitable for our operations.
Coke production is sold to Penoles and other Mexican consumers in northern Mexico. We sold 76,831 tons, 69,638 tons and 82,014 tons of metallurgical coke in 2013, 2012 and 2011, respectively. We expect to sell 85,360 tons of metallurgical coke in 2014.
The table below sets forth 2013, 2012 and 2011 production information for our Nueva Rosita coal and coke complex:
Carbon Mine Exploration
In Coahuila, an intensive exploration program of diamond drilling has identified two additional areas, Esperanza with a potential for more than 30 million tons of “in place” mineralized coal and Guayacan with a potential for 15 million tons of “in place” mineralized coal, that could be used for a future coal-fired power plant. In 2010 and 2011, 1,213 and 2,640 meters of diamond drilling, respectively, were completed at the Rosita pit area and as a result, 10,100 tons and 178,000 tons of coal, respectively, were added to the reserves estimates for this open-pit mine. In addition in 2012, 3,793 meters of drilling were completed at the La Conquista, Nueva Rosita and La Lavadora pits. In 2013 we drilled 2,451 meters and increased our coal reserve estimate by 39,552 tons at the La Conquista pit. For 2014, we expect to execute a 600 meter drilling program to increase the reserves in this pit.
Toquepala Projects: Through December 31, 2014, we have invested a total of $346.0 million in Toquepala projects. These projects include the construction of a new crusher and conveyor belt system to replace current mine rail haulage, which we expect will reduce annual operating cost.
Toquepala expansion project: On December 17, 2014 we received governmental approval of the EIA for the Toquepala concentrator expansion, which will allow us to continue developing this important project. The Toquepala concentrator expansion will increase annual production capacity by 100,000 tons of copper and 3,100 tons of molybdenum at a total capital cost of approximately $1.2.
This project increases the height of the existing Quebrada Honda dam to impound future tailings from the Toquepala and Cuajone mills and will extend the expected life of this tailings facility by 25 years. The first stage and construction of the drainage system for the lateral dam are finished. We are preparing bidding documents for the second stage that includes engineering and procurement to improve and increase the dam’s embankment. The project has a total budgetedcost of $66.0 million with $52.7 million expended through December 31, 2014.
Through December 31, 2014, we have invested $40.6 million of a budget of $45 million on the HPGR project, which will produce a more finely crushed material. The engineering and the purchase of equipment have been completed and the project has reached 99% completion. The project is expected to generate cost savings, improve copper recovery and reduce power consumption in the crushing process. Through December 2014, the implementation of the HPGR project and the variable cut-off ore grade project, implemented in 2013, have produced an estimated incremental production of 23,500 tons of copper.
The project to improve slope stability at the south area of the Cuajone mine, will remove approximately 148 million tons of waste material, in order to improve mine design without reducing current production level. The mine equipment acquired includes one shovel, five 400-ton capacity trucks, one drill and auxiliary equipment which will be reallocated to our mine operations once the project is finished. Besides preparing the mine for the future, this investment will avoid a reduction in average ore grade. As of December 31, 2014, 14 million tons of waste material have been removed and activities will continue for 4 additional years. At December 31, 2014, we have invested $67.7 million in this project.
Pilares project: In 2008, we acquired 100% ownership of Pilares, with the intention of operating it as an open-pit facility. In 2011, the Board of Directors approved the development of the Pilares mine, with a budget of $136.3 million. Current mineralized material is estimated at 43.4 million tons with 0.789% of copper sulfide content and 0.077% copper oxide. We expect to increase copper production by 40,000 tons per year by sending mineral from the Pilares site to our La Caridad concentrator. Pilares is currently on hold while we solve a “right of way” issue with the local community.
Buenavista Projects: We continue developing our $3.4 billion investment program at this unit, which is expected to increase its copper production capacity by approximately 71%, from 180,000 tons to 488,000 tons by 2015, as well as, to increase molybdenum production.
The new copper molybdenum concentrator has an annual production capacity of 188,000 tons of copper and 2,600 tons of molybdenum. The project will additionally produce 2.3 million ounces of silver and 21,000 ounces of gold per year. The total capital budget of the project is $1,383.6 million and through December 31, 2014, the project has an 92.2% progress with an investment of $978.5 million. The project is expected to be completed in the third quarter of 2015. All major equipment is on site and has been installed.
Regarding the mine equipment acquisition for the Buenavista expansion, through December 31, 2014 we have invested $510.9 million and have received sixty-one 400-ton capacity trucks, seven shovels and eight drills required for the mine expansion. All of this equipment is currently in operation.
Performance testing for the SX-EW III plant was successfully completed and technical full capacity has been achieved in accordance with the design flow rate of the plant. Estimated annual production for the plant is 120,000 tons of copper cathodes. Capital budget of $444.0 million has been invested through December 31, 2014.
The crushing, conveying and spreading system for leachable ore project (Quebalix IV) will increase production by improving SX-EW copper recovery, reducing processing time, mining and hauling costs. It has a crushing and conveying capacity of 80 million tons per year and is expected to be completed in the fourth quarter of 2015. The project has a 49.4% progress with an investment of $117.7 million out of the approved capital budget of $340 million.
The remaining projects to complete the $3.4 billion budgeted program include investments in infrastructure, including power lines and substations, water supply, tailings dam, mine equipment shops, internal roads and others.